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James W. Fraser (collector) photograph collection

 Collection
Identifier: M066

Scope and Content Note

The collection comprises 86 black and white photographs from 1905 to 1976. The bulk of the photographs are from 1974 to 1976. The collection documents the people involved and affected by Judge Garrity's 1974 decision to desegregate Boston public schools by means of forced busing. It also documents events and reactions surrounding public school integration in Hyde Park, South Boston, and Charlestown in the mid-1970s. Most of the photographs depict anti-busing protests and marches, parents demonstrating around Boston and in Washington, D.C., and police. There are images of students in class and outside Hyde Park, Charlestown, and South Boston High Schools. There are also four photographs of Boston school buildings from 1905 to 1954.

The collection is arranged chronologically. Most of these photographs are copyrighted by the Boston Globe, the Herald, or the Associated Press (AP) Wire, and many of them were published. The titles used in the description below are taken or paraphrased from the original photograph captions. The photographers represented include Mike Andersen, Kevin Cole, Ted Dully, Stanley Forman, Frank Hill, Ray Lussier, Roland Oxton, Leo Renahan, and M. Leo Tierney.

Dates

  • 1905-ca. 1990 (bulk 1974-1976)

Creator

Conditions Governing Access:

Unrestricted

Conditions Governing Reproduction and Use:

To publish material from this collection, please see the University Archivist; permission must be obtained from the Boston Globe, the Herald, or the Wide World Photo Library.

Historical Note

James W. Fraser was Professor and Dean of the School of Education and Director of the Center for Innovation in Urban Education at Northeastern University until 2006. He is now Professor of History and Education at the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University and Senior Advisor to Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. He has been involved with Boston public schools since 1974 and has written about policy and the history of education, Boston schools, and religion and public education. He holds a bachelor's degree in American history, an MDiv, and a Ph.D. in the history of American education. Before he joined Northeastern University, Fraser was a faculty member and the Dean of Educational Studies and Public Policy at Lesley College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He also was a bus monitor and rode the buses the first day of the desegregation of Boston public schools in 1974.

In June 1974, Judge W. Arthur Garrity, Jr. found the Boston School Committee guilty of willful segregation and called for forced busing of African-American students from Roxbury and other predominantly African-American neighborhoods, to predominantly white schools, including Hyde Park, South Boston, and Charlestown High Schools. Before the ruling, students were assigned to schools based on where they lived. As a result, schools were segregated based on the population of the students in the area. While in many schools the integration process went relatively smoothly, in Hyde Park, Charlestown, and South Boston, Garrity's integration plan resulted in anti-busing rallies and marches, as well as incidences of violence. In October 1974, after African-American students reacted violently to the stabbing of Andre Yvon Jean-Louis, Massachusetts Governor Francis W. Sargent called in the National Guard. School boycotts, anti-busing marches, and violence continued.

Chronology

  • 1965 Massachusetts passes a law against de facto segregation, the Racial Imbalance Act. It is not enforced.
  • 1974
  • June 21 Judge Garrity finds Boston School Committee guilty of willful segregation.
  • Sept. 9 Restore Our Alienated Rights (ROAR) anti-busing rally.
  • Sept. 12 First day of Phase I busing. Attacks on African-American students and communities begin.
  • Oct. 7 Mob attacks André Yvon Jean-Louis.
  • Oct. 15 White student stabbed at Hyde Park High School; Governor Francis W. Sargent alerts National Guard.
  • Dec. 11 White student stabbed at South Boston High; African-American students trapped inside.
  • Dec. 15 Demonstration on Boston Common to end the use of busing as a means of desegregation.
  • 1975
  • March Anti-busing leaders from fourteen states, including Massachusetts, announce formation of a national coalition to seek an anti-busing amendment to the Constitution; Louise Day Hicks appointed chairman.
  • May 10 Judge Garrity issues desegregation plan for Phase II, expanding busing in fall.
  • Sept. Phase II begins. Mothers' prayer march in Charlestown.
  • Oct. White students walk out of South Boston and Charlestown High Schools; African-American students refuse to enter these schools because of daily attacks.
  • Dec. 9 Boston National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) office is firebombed.
  • 1976
  • Feb 15 Fathers' march in South Boston ends in clash with police.
  • April 5 Theodore Landsmark, an African-American lawyer, is attacked on the steps of City Hall.
  • April White-African-American violence escalates.
  • April 23 Mayor Kevin White leads "procession against violence" or "Prayer Procession for Peace."
  • June 14 Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals of Judge Garrity's Phase II orders.
1965
Massachusetts passes a law against de facto segregation, the Racial Imbalance Act. It is not enforced.
1974
June 21
Judge Garrity finds Boston School Committee guilty of willful segregation.
Sept. 9
Restore Our Alienated Rights (ROAR) anti-busing rally.
Sept. 12
First day of Phase I busing. Attacks on African-American students and communities begin.
Oct. 7
Mob attacks André Yvon Jean-Louis.
Oct. 15
White student stabbed at Hyde Park High School; Governor Francis W. Sargent alerts National Guard.
Dec. 11
White student stabbed at South Boston High; African-American students trapped inside.
Dec. 15
Demonstration on Boston Common to end the use of busing as a means of desegregation.
1975
March
Anti-busing leaders from fourteen states, including Massachusetts, announce formation of a national coalition to seek an anti-busing amendment to the Constitution; Louise Day Hicks appointed chairman.
May 10
Judge Garrity issues desegregation plan for Phase II, expanding busing in fall.
Sept.
Phase II begins. Mothers' prayer march in Charlestown.
Oct.
White students walk out of South Boston and Charlestown High Schools; African-American students refuse to enter these schools because of daily attacks.
Dec. 9
Boston National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) office is firebombed.
1976
Feb 15
Fathers' march in South Boston ends in clash with police.
April 5
Theodore Landsmark, an African-American lawyer, is attacked on the steps of City Hall.
April
White-African-American violence escalates.
April 23
Mayor Kevin White leads "procession against violence" or "Prayer Procession for Peace."
June 14
Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals of Judge Garrity's Phase II orders.

Extent

0.6 cubic feet (2 containers)

Overview

In June 1974, Judge W. Arthur Garrity, Jr. found the Boston School Committee guilty of willful segregation and called for forced busing of students from Roxbury and other predominantly African-American neighborhoods, to predominantly white schools, including Hyde Park, South Boston, and Charlestown High Schools. Before the ruling, students were assigned to schools based on where they lived. As a result, schools were segregated based on the population of the students in the area. While in many schools the integration process went relatively smoothly, in Hyde Park, Charlestown, and South Boston, Garrity's integration plan resulted in anti-busing rallies and marches, as well as incidences of violence. In October 1974, after African-American students reacted violently to the stabbing of Andre Yvon Jean-Louis, Massachusetts Governor Francis W. Sargent called in the National Guard. School boycotts, anti-busing marches, and violence continued. James W. Fraser was Professor and Dean of the School of Education and Director of the Center for Innovation in Urban Education at Northeastern University. He was a bus monitor and rode the buses the first day of the desegregation of Boston public schools in 1974.

Overview

The collection comprises 114 black and white photographs dating from 1905 to 1976, bulk dates 1974-1976. The collection documents the people involved in and affected by Judge Garrity's 1974 decision to desegregate Boston public schools by means of forced busing. It also documents events and reactions to those events surrounding public school integration in Hyde Park, Charlestown, and South Boston in the mid-1970s. Most of the photographs depict anti-busing protests and marches, parents demonstrating around Boston, and police. There are images of students in class and outside Hyde Park, Charlestown, and South Boston High Schools. There are also several images of African American students and community leaders protesting school conditions in the 1960s and participating in activities at the Freedom School. There are also four photographs of Boston school buildings, 1905-1954. Most of the photographs are copyrighted by the Boston Globe, the Boston Herald, or the Associated Press (AP) Wire, and many of the photographs were published. A number of photographers took the photographs, including Mike Andersen, Kevin Cole, Ted Dully, Stanley Forman, Frank Hill, Ray Lussier, Roland Oxton, Leo Renahan, and M. Leo Tierney.

System of Arrangement:

Arranged in one chronological sequence.

Physical Location

65/4

Bibliography

  • Northeastern University (Boston, Mass.). Arts and Sciences Chronicle, Fall 1993, v. 6 n. 2, p. 11. NU Archives (88/2).
  • Cozzens, Lisa. "School Integration (1955-1975)." African American History. July 12, 1998. http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/school-integration/index.html. (October 9, 2001)
  • Hillson, Jon. The Battle of Boston. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1997. Snell Stacks LC 214.53.B67H54. Monteiro, Marilyn D.S. "The Freedom House Institute on Schools and Education: Its Participation in Boston's Court-Ordered School Desegregation: The First Year, 1974-75." Doctoral dissertation, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 1982. NU Archives.
  • Perry, Theresa, and James W. Fraser, eds. Freedom's Plow: Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom. New York: Routledge, 1993. Snell Stacks LC1099.3.F74 1993.
  • "Q & A." The Northeastern Voice, 17 February 1994, p. 4. NU Archives (R/Rm).
  • Sheehan, J. Brian. The Boston School Integration Dispute: Social Change and Legal Maneuvers. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. Snell Stacks LC 214.23.B67S54 1984.
  • Fraser, James W. "Curriculum Vitae." Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development at New York University. n.d. http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/_faccv1/JamesW.Fraser.pdf (accessed February 13, 2014).
Title
Finding aid for the James W. Fraser (collector) Photograph Collection
Author
Finding aid prepared by Michael Blech; updated by Martha Pearson
Date
November 2001, February 2014
Language of description
Description is in English.

Repository Details

Part of the Northeastern University Archives and Special Collections Repository

Contact:
92 Snell Library
Northeastern University
360 Huntington Avenue
Boston MA 02115 US